FUTURE OBJECTS OF 3D CADASTRE IN POLAND
AGH University of Science and Technology
The subject of a three-dimensional cadastre, commonly known as the 3D cadastre, appears more extensively since the workshop held in Delft in 2001. Since the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century, this subject has gained more and more popularity in Poland.
As it is known, objects of the Polish cadastre are parcels, buildings and premises that are independent real estates. In the real world, a parcel is a surface where every point is determined by the coordinates (x, y, z). On the other hand, the building and the premises are solids or a group of solids. On the map the parcel and building are polygons (with possible enclaves), and the premises has a spatial reference only indirectly through the building in which it is located. Also in the cadastral database the building and the premises have attributes related to the third dimension, while the parcel is represented in the XY plane.
The question arises as to whether in the future 3D cadastre, these objects will be the same objects, but in their description in the cadastral database z coordinate will be added, so that the parcel will be a three-dimensional surface, or a second variant should be chosen, where the parcel will be created as a solid and one of its attributes will be volume. These issues have been widely developed in the paper.
Key words: 3D cadastre, cadastral parcel, building, premises
DENDROFLORA OF ROADSIDE SACRAL OBJECTS IN THE TRZYDNIK DUŻY COMMUNE (LUBLIN VOIVODESHIP)
Piotr Kulesza, Magdalena Lubiarz, Małgorzata Żak-Kulesza
The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
Among numerous elements of the Polish landscape, especially noteworthy are the roadside sacral objects. They are a testimony to national and local identity, and express centuries-old religious values. What is more, roadside crosses and shrines, surrounded by trees and shrubs, accentuate the space with exceptional decorative and cultural value. The presence of vegetation enriches the compositional value of these objects, complements their spatial structure, and highlights the aesthetic value. This paper presents the results of a study of regarding roadside sacral objects, carried out in the Trzydnik Duży Commune, Lublin Voivodeship. The study was performed as an inventory, enabling us to determine the species composition, health condition, and age of the dendroflora accompanying the roadside sacral objects. Within the studied area 73 roadside sacral objects were inventoried. It was found that 53 of them were surrounded by trees and shrubs that represent 42 species. The most common include limes, lilacs, and white cedars. Health condition of the dendroflora is varied, however 78% of the examined trees and shrubs are of very good or good health condition.
Key words: dendroflora, roadside sacral objects, landscape, Trzydnik Duży, cross, shrine
CADASTRAL VALUE OF REAL ESTATE IN THE PROCESS OF MODERNIZATION OF LAND CADASTRE
Jan Kuryj, Ryszard Źróbek
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Since 2001, with varying intensity is upgraded of land and buildings register. The aim of this action is to transform this system in modern of land cadastre. Meet it is assumptions developed by the FIG and the FAO, as well as meet the growing demand for information in the management of space and be compatible with other systems gathering information about real estate.
Modernization of this is also related to the construction in Poland of an integrated information system on real estate (ZSIN) and the adjustment of the range of information and data exchange formats to standards in the Member States of the European Union. A modernized land cadastre ultimately has to be the main source of information on the need for reform of the Polish system of property taxes and the backrest base its calculation of the value of the property. For this purpose, entered in the records of the land and buildings a new attribute: “cadastre value”. This value is still no practical dimension.
The study proposed the recognition of the universal process of property taxation system, as well as reciprocal links and relationships with land and buildings register. Analyses the legal regulations for the presence in them of system flaws that impede the implementation of the procedures of mass appraisal of property. It was proposed the need to extend the scope of the information an upgraded land cadastre, in the direction of increasing its usefulness, as the main source of information, universal power of property taxation in the necessary data and information.
Key words: real estate management, land cadastre, mass appraisal, cadastral value, modernization of land and buildings register
THE ISSUE OF AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE WORK OF THE SPATIAL PLANNERS AND ARCHITECTS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE USE OF SPATIAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS
Anna Michalik1, Agnieszka Zwirowicz-Rutkowska2, Maja Wojtkiewicz3
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn2
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń3
In many publications about urban planning and architecture there is indicated their interdisciplinary and multi-thematic character. One of the current headline in the mass media, and also the issue relating to spatial planning, is air pollution. When creating design studies and undertaking attempts by spatial planners and architects to include dedicated solutions allowing to prevent air pollution, at each stage of the work a very important issue is the selection and the quality of the data. Activities in the framework of the implementation of the various stages of work may be less labour intensive and more accurate, if the use of such solutions as spatial information infrastructures and systems is considered. The aim of the paper is to present, based on the work experience of the authors of this publication, the potential of the use of spatial information infrastructure and systems as sources of spatial data and analysis for the design work of planners and architects, connected with the improvement of the air quality, as well as to present, based on the literature review, examples of solutions that can be used to protect the air.
Key words: smog, air protection, spatial analysis, spatial data, spatial planning
REPAIR GAP IN MUNICIPAL HOUSING STOCK MANAGEMENT
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Following the transition from a centrally planned housing policy towards market-oriented one Polish government withdrew from the direct intervention in the housing sector. Simultaneously, the main responsibility for providing public assistance concerning housing area was transferred to the local authorities. In order to achieve this goal, municipalities have taken over the ownership of large housing stocks from the state sector by complimentary transfer. Those stocks are usually characterized by low quality and poor technical condition because of neglect of repairs and refurbishment in the past. Due to current financial constraints in the budgets of municipalities, previously established repair gap in those stocks is unfortunately still expanding.
The paper presents the repair gap in the municipal housing stock in Poland from the theoretical side, taking into account its nature, causes and methods of measurement. Theoretical considerations are supplemented by the results of an empirical assessment of the real size of the repair gap in the city of Olsztyn by the repairs rate method. Empirical studies have confirmed the trend of the continuous persistence of the gap in the municipal housing stocks of the researched city, although during the period considered the situation in this area has significantly improved.
Key words: repair gap, municipal housing stock, housing associations, the city of Olsztyn
DETERMINATION OF THE VERTICALITY OF THE CHIMNEY ON THE BASIS OF PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MEASUREMENTS
Izabela Piech, Bogusława Kwoczyńska, Szymon Łukaszewicz
University of Agriculture in Krakow
The article presents aspects of determining the verticality of a chimney based on photogrammetric measurements. The measurements were made using the LeicaGeosystems Scan Station P40 scanner.
The scope of the work involved gathering and combining point clouds and then developing a 3D model based on them.
Combinations of single scans were made using spheres with a diameter of 15 cm with an accuracy of 0.005 m. The measurements were made from three stations to obtain the maximum amount of information about the examined object. Modeling of the acquired data was performed in the MicroStation software environment.
Key words: Chimney vertical, terrestrial laser scanning, scan orientation, scanning accuracy, 3D model, tower structures, deformation measurements
SOCIOECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN OLSZTYN’S SUBURBAN AREAS
Agnieszka Szczepańska, Małgorzata Gerus-Gościewska
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Changes that place in the suburban zone are a manifestation of urban development. Suburban expansion is generally associated with the migration of populations, mostly people of pre-working and working age, away from the urban core to areas surrounding the city. Migration triggers social and economic activity. In the social dimension, non-governmental organizations cater to local communities’ needs in the area of sports, recreation, culture and education. In the economic realm, local businesses contribute to the socioeconomic development of suburban areas. This study analyzes non-governmental organizations and businesses in Olsztyn’s suburban zone to characterize socioeconomic development associated with suburban expansion. The results of the analysis were used to identify local growth hubs and the extent of influence exerted by the urban core. The highest level of economic activity was observed in municipalities adjacent to the city’s administrative boundaries. The greatest extent of influence was noted for social activity, and the predominant types of activity were sports, tourism and local development.
Key words: urban areas, socioeconomic activities, non-governmental organizations, business activity