THE CONSTRUCTION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN ACCORDING TO SELECTED PROVISIONS OF LOCAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND THE JUDGMENTS OF ADMINISTRATIVE COURTS
Bartosz Jawecki1, Marcin Sobota1,2, Katarzyna Pawęska1
Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences1, Kancelaria Adwokacka Szajkowski Sobota2
The paper presents the legal aspects of the construction of hausehold sewage disposal works, mostly based on the provisions of territorial land use planning, also considering the construction process. The authors lay emphasis on administrative courts’ rulings, issued as a result of ongoing administrative proceedings regarding construction permits’ issuance, as well as administrative proceedings pending after the administration’s objection to the notification of the household sewage disposal works’ construction. Administrative courts – within the scope of the conducted audit – evaluated the provisions of the territorial land use planning in the context of the admissibility of the household sewage disposal works’ construciton. Any restrictions on the household sewage disposal works’ construction are an exception to the principle of inviolability of the ownership right and should therefore be specifically justified. In this case, economic reasons are clearly insufficient and thus any prohibition considering this matter should be consistent with the constitutional principle of proportionality.
Key words: domestic wastewater treatment plant, local spatial development plan, jurisdiction, building permit.
THE USE OF SMART CITY RECEIVABLES FOR EXAMPLE MULTI-FAMILY HAUSING
Koło Naukowe Gospodarki Nieruchomościami, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
The modern society is searching for more comfortable life, including better solutions. Examples such as ideal smart, start out single family houses, and the smart city concept become popular in the area of whole cities. This article presents the adaption of smart city concept in development project made for multi-family housing estate. Undefined information on intelligent concepts on land for multi-family housing. The design project was developed in accordance with the housing conditions in the local spatial development plan, and also refers to this type ofcity solutions, which are described in more detail way in the elaboration. In this paper, examples of prints from the visualization of the surveyed area are also presented. The final part of the article is description of common barriers in the implementation of the smart city solutions in Poland and to draw appropriate thresholds.
Key words: smart city, land development, innovations, multifamily housing
OPPORTUNITIES OF FINANCING LOCAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS FROM PRIVATE RESOURCES – THE STUDY IN TERMS OF POLAND AND THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC
Karol Król1, Zlatica Muchová2
University of Agriculture in Krakow1, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra2
The subjects concerning possible participation of entities different from local government units in costs of local planning in Poland as well as legal financing resources of local plans in Poland and
Slovakia were considered in the paper. These studies were realized on the basis of selected post-control recommendations of the Supreme Audit Office, Regional Chambers of Audit and also legal acts and court judgements. It was revealed in conclusion that financing local plans from investor’s resources is in common practice in the Slovak Republic. The investor can cover the costs of preparing planning documentation after signing a relevant agreement with the commune. In Poland, local plans financing matter by private entities raises doubts, is controversial and equivocal, often reaches a trial docket and assessment of legality of financing local plans by an investor requires the detailed analysis of factual and legal conditions in every case.
Key words: planning authority, spatial planning costs, spatial development, land-use plans
METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION AND ELIMINATION OF THE EXTERNAL PATCHWORK OF AGRICULTURAL LAND FOR THE PURPOSE OF INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONSOLIDATION AND EXCHANGE PROCESS
University of Life Sciences in Lublin
Research conducted in Poland for many years now has shown that one of the main factors that hinder sound land management is defective spatial structure of agricultural land. A characteristic feature of rural areas in our country is that land is scattered in an external patchwork as a result of the widespread phenomenon of land fragmentation. The scale of this phenomenon is an important factor that limits the possibility of achieving satisfactory outcomes in land consolidation tasks. In this paper, a methodology for assessing the scale of an external patchwork of farmland is proposed. The goal of this method is to increase the efficiency of land consolidation and exchange procedures. On the basis of an analysis of the phenomenon of land fragmentation, we developed mathematical formulae which can be used to facilitate the complex process of programming of activities aimed at consolidating and exchanging land scattered over large areas. This method consists in selecting appropriately weighted parameters based on a dependency structure matrix and the Czekanowski diagram, which allow to determine the degree of fragmentation in a given area. Interpretation of the ordered diagram allows one to identify clusters of villages which need to be put under a common land exchange and/or consolidation programme. The land fragmentation data read from a Czekanowski diagram are an important supplement to priority rankings showing the order in which consolidation schemes should be implemented in a given area. This methodology can be successfully applied in practice in Poland. What guarantees its reliability is the fact that it uses data derived from real estate cadastre databases which provide a complete picture of the spatial and ownership structure of the analysed areas.
The methodology proposed here allows one to achieve better consolidation outcomes as it focuses on eliminating defective patterns of land ownership.
Key words: land ownership patchwork, land consolidation and exchange, comprehensive land consolidation programming, land fragmentation, rural areas.
REDUCING FUEL POVERTY BY THERMOMODERNISATION OF BUILDINGS
Agnieszka Napiórkowska-Baryła, Mateusz Zera
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
The article discusses a multi-faceted problem of fuel poverty. This issue is not well recognised in Poland, even though it is estimated to affect at least 17% of the Polish population, who find it difficult to maintain comfortable temperature in their houses or to pay bills for heating their dwellings. One of the ways to reduce the scale of fuel poverty – apart from an economic support given to households and promotion of adequate attitudes to energy consumption – is through improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings. This goal is achieved by thermomodernisation, which generates both economic and social benefits. The problem was presented through a case study – the residential property of a housing community, which passed a resolution to carry out a thermomodernisation investment.
Key words: fuel poverty, thermomodernisation of buildings
THE DEVELOPMENT OF WIND ENERGY IN THE SUBURBAN SPACE AND THE PERCEPTION OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPE
Berenika Ryszkowska, Tomasz Starczewski, Justyna Chodkowska-Miszczuk
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
The contemporary growth of wind energy, as a response to the increasing demand for energy, is related to the construction of new wind energy facilities, including those using locally available renewable energy sources (RES). The location of power plants, especially in places which to date have not been associated with energy production, has an effect not only on the change and/or diversification of the functions of an area, but also on the transformations of landscape structures and landscape perception. Most fears and widespread discussions regarding potential landscape transformations are raised by those among the new energy facilities that have an above-average size and an unusual shape (for a given area). Wind power plants are among such installations. They are located predominantly in rural areas, including in close vicinity of cities (suburban areas).
The study aims to analyse the perception of cultural landscape by the local community in the context of the development of wind energy in the suburban area. The research area covers the city of Sztum and its neighbouring rural areas included in the urban-rural commune of Sztum, LAU 2 in Pomorskie Region (NUTS 2).
Key words: suburban space, cultural landscape, perception of landscape, wind energy.
REHABILITATION CONCEPT OF THE RESERVOIR INCLUDING ITS SURROUNDINGS ON THE DEVASTATED LAND
Piotr Stachowski, Daniel Liberacki, Karolina Kraczkowska
Poznań University of Life Sciences,
This paper presents the concept of the recreational development of the water reservoir Władysławów and its surroundings at the end of excavation of the opencast lignite mine of KWB “Adamów”. It was proposed, according to the “ Law of the Protection of Agricultural and Forest Land” (Article 20, item 9), to connect the treatment of water recultivation, which was commenced in 2013, to the treatments of the utilised land recultivated. By combining these procedures a new reservoir was formed in the post-mining pit before the completion of reclamation, forming an attractive feature of the landscape, which is a part of the existing Złotogórski Protected Area. The reservoir should also play a multifunctional role which is mainly recreational and touristic. The devastated post-mining landscape in a relatively short time become a became a mainstay of nature. The key role was to utilise the devastated area, so the concept involved the creation of the beaches with recreational jetties, beaches and footbridges for angling. The first attraction was an overlook that offers an impressive panoramic view on the reservoir and its direct surroundings. The southern slope is arranged to feature terraces that serve for stabilising the ground, as well as seats with containers for grass plants. Due to the absence of road infrastructure, the concept also includes a hard-surfaced access road and a car park made of eco-friendly pavement. An intriguing element is the formation of a wooden sign “WŁADYSŁAWÓW”located at the borderline of grass and sand which may be visible from the bird’s eye view, which may also serve as benches. All of the above, including landscape, shall be complemented by greenery in the nearshore zone of the lake and the forestation of the northern and eastern shoreline of the reservoir. A buffer zone shall be formed by trees and shrubs which are typical for the root reinforcement of slopes and which are appropriate for dry sites. Initially, some pioneer vegetation shall appear which over time shall be replaced by the target vegetation
Key words: water reservoir, final excavation, reclamation of water, post mining areas, changes in the landscape
PLANNING TOOLS – CREATING SPTIAL POLICY IN RELATION TO THE BUILDING OF SINGLE – FAMILY AND MULTI – FAMILY HOUSING IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES OF SUBURBAN CITY OF OLSZTYN
Elżbieta Zysk1, Patrycja Wawrowska2
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn1, Warsaw University of Life Sciences2
In recent decades, suburban, rural areas change their character from the agricultural function on the residential function. Social, economic and spatial factors influence the transformation of these areas. Of the factors that significantly affect the rural areas are migration of people from the city to rural areas of suburban municipalities. This article aims to identify the problem that affects most suburban municipalities in Poland: population growth involves changes in the development of space. The spatial policy applied by the local government is trying to cope with the flow of potential inhabitants. Suburban municipalities if they can (have attractive areas) to live with a local land use plans and zoning transform the space previously used as agricultural land intended for housing development. Two suburban communities Dywity and Stawiguda were selected for the study. The analysis concerns planning instruments in the field of single-family and multi-family development. Study of conditions and directions of land development, local spatial development plans and decisions on development and spatial management conditions.
Keys words: suburbanization, residential development on rural areas, suburban community