LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE KĘPA MIESZCZAŃSKA IN WROCŁAW – CHANCES AND THREATS
Janusz Gubański, Jacek Burdziński, Renata Gubańska
Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu
Kępa Mieszczańska is one of the bigger Odra islands in Wrocław. At present, on its area lasts a planned process of converting post-industrial and post-military zones into public areas mainly about the housing function. Intense urbanization of areas inaccessible until now, rich in natural habitats and with shoreline formed by decades characteristic of natural scenery, may cause essential threats to the image of the island as the isolated natural space located in very city centre. From the other side, opening this space to the inhabitants is important for the creation of the image of the city, due to showing her aesthetic potential hidden until now. The article presents issue of the systematic expansion of the big-city housing development in the space of the island, what is being combined with the process of slow integration formally and functionally isolated area of the Kępa Mieszczańska with the urban public space of Wrocław.
Key words: aesthetics, cultural landscape, metamorphosis, integration, revitalisation, spatial structure
VERIFICATION OF LAND AND BUILDING CADASTRE ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CITY OF KATOWICE
Weronika Guzek, Agnieszka Bieda, Jarosław Bydłosz
AGH Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanisława Staszica w Krakowie
The land and building cadastre is the register significantly affecting the activities of the state. One of the cornerstones of its functioning are the cadastral data entered by an administrative employee basing on the source documents. The aim of this article is to present the problem of data incorrectness and types of errors occurring. The method of verification and the obtained results are discussed. The paper focuses on the importance of the technology used, the experience gained and knowledge of regulations that are both valid and no longer in force. The analysis was made on the basis of verifications carried out in 2015 and 2016, in the cadastral data base of the city of Katowice.
Key words: cadastre, errors, cadastral data, source documents, data verification
FACTORS INFLUENCING DEPOPULATION PROCESSES IN RURAL AREAS OF NORTHERN POLAND
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Changes in the population are a normal phenomenon caused by many factors resulting from the historical past, natural and socio-economic conditions as well as from the geographical location. However, when the spatial diversity of the population distribution is too large, it can lead to unfavorable consequences in the development of a given area. The study aims to designate rural depopulation communities in northern Poland and to determine the reasons for their creation and consequences in the demographic aspect. The processes of changes in the spatial distribution of the rural population are characterized by a certain durability, however, the unfavorable socio-economic situation may additionally contribute to the deepening of depopulation processes. The rural areas of the Zachodniopomorskie, Pomorskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie and Warmian-Masurian Voivodships were accepted as a research area.
Key words: rural areas, northern Poland, rural communes depopulated
PUBLIC-LAW FORMS OF COUNTERACTING THE SO-CALLED PHENOMENON OF ODOUR NUISANCE RESULTING FROM AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITY RELATED TO PIG PRODUCTION IN FACTORY FARMS
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
The gradual degradation of the environment and social conflicts are negative results of commercialization and intensification of agricultural production. Particularly destructive influence in this respect is noted in connection with the activity of the so-called corporate farms, taking the form of farms with high concentration of animals. Therefore, one legal aspect of their functioning has been analysed in this paper: farms perceived as an odour-generating factor. Due to the fact that the pork market is vital for agricultural market in Poland, the considerations have been limited to pig farms.
The aim of the article is to analyse the current (de lege lata) public-law instruments in the Polish normative system that aim at counteracting the so-called odour nuisance resulting from agricultural activity related to pig production in factory farms.
The analyses led to the conclusion that Polish regulations, similarly to EU regulations, did not introduce an appropriate air protection standard against odour but only against certain substances in the air. At present there are only rules that affect the reduction of odour nuisance but they do so only partially and in connection with other issues.
Due to the lack of odour provisions they cannot be examined in the process of obtaining a decision on the environmental conditions of consent for a pig farm. The fact that such farms produce unpleasant odour cannot determine formal administrative and legal decisions. In particular, it is not possible to issue a legally effective decision that refuses to determine the environmental conditions of consent for the pig farm for reasons of a lack of regulations on odour and measuring methods.
Lack of legal procedures for making meaningful analyses of odour dispersion prevents proper assessment of the impact of such businesses on the environment and on human health. Nevertheless, the interpretation used by the administrative courts allows to assume that the odour aspect should be taken into account when issuing such decisions. As existing legal instruments introduce very limited and unsatisfactory legal protection for the inhabitants of the areas where such farms operate, it becomes necessary to apply the constitutional principle of sustainable development, the general principles of the environmental law and even the findings of the WHO as well as the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. This demonstrates a clear trend in the judicature, in which not only the rights of persons to live in freedom from odour nuisances are recognized, but also the need for the protection by legal means.
For these reasons the problem of odour nuisance requires the introduction of a comprehensive and systemic solution. Therefore, it should be recognized that the attempt to regulate this area of socio-economic life, which involves the development of clear and precise rules concerning odour standards and methods of measurement of odour and air quality, is possible, justified and desirable.
Key words: odour nuisance, odour issues, corporate farms activities, factory (large-scale) farms, pig production, environmental protection
SELECTED LEGAL, TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL ASPECTS OF CADASTRE 3D IN POLAND
Monika Mika, Magdalena Jurkiewicz
Uniwersytet Rolniczy w Krakowie
Issues of cadastre 3D is important element of consideration many national and international commissions, which work on vision future cadastral systems. This issue concerns a wide group of information system users. So this require consulting many industries, such as law, geodesy, architecture, building, spatial planning and other.
In Poland register of land and building perform a function of the cadastre. The basic cadastral objects are parcels, buildings and premises, which are independent real estate. For this cadastral objects graphical and descriptive information only in 2D is recorded. This informations should be supplemented with elements 3D during creation of 3D cadastre.
In this paper authors consider law, technical and economical aspects in the context of real possibilities implementation of cadastre 3D in Poland.
Key words: cadastre 3D, cadastral objects, law
SPATIAL WEIGHTS MATRIX IN CLUSTERING OF THE EXTERNAL PATCHWORK OF AGRICULTURAL LAND
This publication contains a description of the modification of the methodology for determining the areas of concentration of the external patchwork of agricultural land. The changes relate to the weighting of features regarding the occurrence of the external patchwork of land and characterizing the interaction of individual village pairs in the considered area. The previous approach, in some specific cases, caused the undesirable effect of the higher weighting of features for non-neighbors’ couples than for the direct neighbors of the same villages. The results obtained using two variants of the spatial weights matrix constructed on the basis of the common boundary criterion, which improve the method originally presented in 2017, are presented.
Key words: land fragmentation, non-resident owners, cluster analysis, Czekanowski’s diagram.
A COUNTERACTION OF FLOODS’ EFFECTS IN THE LEWIN BRZESKI URBAN-RURAL MUNICIPALITY
Zbigniew Piepiora, Mateusz Jaśkiewicz
Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu
The article answered in the affirmative to the research question ‘Is counteracting the effects of natural disasters in the area of the Lewin Brzeski urban-rural municipality, effective in terms of available human resources and measures?” The hypothesis entitled ‘The prevention of the negative consequences of natural disasters in the area of the Lewin Brzeski municipality is effective in terms of available human resources and measures’. The spatial scope of the analysis concerned the Lewin Brzeski urban-rural municipality. The time range of analysis covered the years 2010–2016. Research methods included the analysis of literature and organizational documentation, the interviews and field work, the case studies, the cartographic methods. As a result of conducted analysis, the following conclusions can be drawn. ‘The municipality’s emergency management plan for Lewin Brzeski’ and ‘The operational plan for the flood protection’ provide conditions for effective flood mitigation. The authorities of the Lewin Brzeski municipality effectively use spatial planning to reduce the effects of floods in the examined area. In the period from October 2010 to October 2014, was conducted in the analyzed area the investment entitled ‘Improving Lewin Brzeski flood protection on the Nysa Kłodzka river’. It aimed to improve the effectiveness of flood protection in the Lewin Brzeski municipality. According to the authors, it could be supplemented, for example, by using gravel ponds to drain too much water flowing in Nysa Kłodzka.
Key words: municipality, Lewin Brzeski, flood, spatial planning, emergency management, flood protec-tion, counteraction, effects
EKOREVITALIZATIONAS AN INNOVATIVE WAY OF SPACE DEVELOPMENT
Krzysztof Rogatka, Magdalena Dolińska, Tomasz Starczewski, Jadwiga Biegańska
University of Nicolaus Copernicus in Torun
Revitalization is currently one of the basic processes that change the physiognomy and functioning of cities. If in this process the dominant element undergoing transformation is the natural environment, we are talking about ecorevitalization. The aim of the article is to analyze and evaluate potential activities in the field of greening of greenery around the Old Town Complex. The inference was based on the results of research on the perception of green areas around the Old Town Complex and opinions of respondents related to expectations as to the future development and nature of the analyzed area in the context of ecorevitalization.
Key words: city, spatial planning, urban greenery, ecorevitalization, perception, participation